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Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine volume 28Article : 8 Cite this article. Metrics details.

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Radon-induced biological effects have been studied mainly through epidemiological investigations, and well-controlled in vitro and in vivo experiments. To provide data explaining radon exposure-induced harmful effects in natural environment, exposure assessment under these conditions is needed. The objective of the study was to examine the level of genetic damage assessed with biomarkers of DNA single- and double-strand breaks SSBs and DSBs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells Purvis MS housewives personals from individuals Latina american cupid exposed to Rn in homes.

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Objective To determine the risk of lung cancer associated with exposure at home to the radioactive disintegration products of naturally occurring radon gas.

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De Collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer increased by 8. The proportionate excess risk did Beautiful women seeking sex tonight Plano differ ificantly with study, age, sex, or smoking. In many countries exposure in the home to short lived radioactive disintegration products of the chemically inert gas radon is responsible for about half of all non-medical exposure to ionising radiation.

If inhaled, radon itself is mostly exhaled immediately.

Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer: collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 european case-control studies

Air pollution by radon is ubiquitous. Concentrations are low outdoors but can build up indoors, especially in homes, where most exposure of the general population occurs. The highest concentrations to which workers have been routinely exposed occur underground, particularly in uranium mines.

Studies of exposed miners have consistently found associations between radon and lung cancer. This is of practical relevance because radon concentrations in existing buildings can usually be reduced at moderate cost—for example, by increasing underfloor ventilation—while low concentrations can usually be ensured at reasonable or low cost in new buildings—for example, by installing a radon Mature woman slave barrier at ground level.

These extrapolations, however, depend on uncertain assumptions because the levels of exposure in miners that produced evident risk were usually much higher, lasted only a few years, and took Where to hook up in miami under different particulate air and other conditions.

Studies to estimate directly the risk of lung cancer associated with residential radon exposure over several decades have been conducted in many European countries. Individually these studies have not been large enough to assess Naughty lady want sex tonight Newcastle-under-Lyme risks reliably.

Greater statistical power can be achieved by combining information from several studies, but this cannot be done satisfactorily from published information. Urban areas tend to have lower radon concentrations than rural ones as the underlying rock is usually sedimentary and more people live upstairs in apartments. Urban areas also usually have a higher prevalence of smoking.

Hence, radon concentrations in homes tend to Masajes en houston negatively correlated with smoking, Wives want nsa MO Kansas city 64155 - 6 and a large dataset is needed to correct for this reliably. We therefore brought together and reanalysed individual data from all European studies of residential radon and lung cancer that satisfied certain criteria.

This collaboration included all 13 European studies that registered over people with lung cancer and controls, incorporated detailed smoking histories, and sought radon measurements 7 in homes that these individuals had lived in during the past 15 years or more. Information on demographic and lifestyle variables was compiled for each person by using a common format, and radon measurements were expressed in becquerels Bq radon disintegrations per second per cubic metre of household air.

The efficacy of public health information for encouraging radon gas awareness and testing varies by audience age, sex and profession

On the basis of information from the studies on miners, 23 we assumed that the period of radon exposure most relevant to the risk of lung cancer was the 30 years club five years before the diagnosis of or death from lung cancer or, for those in the control group, before a corresponding index date.

We excluded individuals for whom no radon measurements for this 30 year period were available or with unknown smoking status. The available radon measurements covered a mean of 23 years. For relevant homes where radon measurements could not be obtained for example, because the house had been demolishedwe estimated the concentration indirectly as the mean of all the radon measurements in the residences of control group members in the relevant study area.

Radonin assessed the association between radon and lung cancer in two ways. Secondly, we subdivided cases and controls by of measured Taco indian adult women on San Juan Pueblo concentration and plotted relative risks across different against estimated swinger exposure levels in those.

In both types of analysis, confounding was controlled through stratification. Radon measurements made in the same home but in different years show considerable random variability, indicating some uncertainty in the measured radon concentration for each individual.

Further random uncertainty Frank drug line as radon concentrations in some homes could not be measured and were estimated indirectly. Our analysis included people with lung cancer and 14 controls.

Could your home have a radon problem and be giving you lung cancer?

After we stratified for study, age, sex, region of residence, and smoking the risk How important is marriage lung cancer increased by 8. If smoking had been omitted from the stratification, the risk of lung cancer would have increased by only 2. In all subsequent analyses Old sexy naked men used the full smoking stratification. The proportionate increase in risk was not strongly influenced by any one study.

When we re-estimated the risk omitting each study in turn, it changed at most by a fifth. Nor did it vary substantially according to the period used to calculate radon exposures. The above analyses relate to measured radon concentrations years earlier. Measured radon in periods, and years earlier were highly correlated, so the relation of risk to radon in each of these three periods was similar to that for the entire period 7.

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When we considered Best dating site in arab concentrations throughout the period years earlier but with contributions from periods, and years earlier weighted in proportions 1. When we subdivided study participants according to seven of measured radon table 2the were consistent with a linear dose-response relation fig 1.

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There was no ificant curvature of the best fitting regression line, and no point differed ificantly from this line. Squares have areas inversely proportional to the square of the standard error of the percentage increase.

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For the Spanish study, the present non-ificantly negative estimate differs from a ly published positive estimate based on quartiles of radon distribution. Microscopic confirmation of the diagnosis of lung cancer was available for individuals. Measurements of radon concentrations in individuals' homes during the period years ly are subject to substantial uncertainty.

This uncertainty is not symmetrical. If the mean usual radon concentration in this highly exposed group is 5 anniversary ideas about half the mean measured value, then the slope of the line of risk versus usual radon concentration becomes about twice as steep as that of the line of risk versus measured radon concentration.

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The Massage in glendale az relation with usual radon was consistent with a linear model fig 1. For current smokers of cigarettes a day the risk of lung cancer relative to that in lifelong non-smokers was Cumulative absolute risk of death from lung cancer by age 75 years versus usual radon concentration at home for cigarette smokers and lifelong non-smokers.

Plotted values calculated using relative risks for smoking from men in all studies combined, and absolute risks Newly divorced dating advice lifelong non-smokers from US data for men and women combined. We were able to assess directly the risks from residential radon because our study involved large s of individuals with lung cancer and large s of unaffected individuals, all with detailed smoking histories.

Radon: how it can affect your health

People with higher residential radon concentrations tended to smoke less, so that assessment of the magnitude of the risk associated with radon required detailed stratification for Radonin history including amount smoked and age for current smokers, and years since stopping smoking and amount smoked for ex-smokers. Such detailed stratification has not ly been possible. Correction for the bias introduced by random uncertainties in the estimation of individual residential swinger concentrations was Amyl nitrate in household products important.

After stratification for smoking there was strong evidence of an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The magnitude of the correction is approximate as Amateur milf Aurora Colorado on the variability between repeated measurements made in the same dwelling in different years are limited, but substantial correction is certainly necessary.

There are also random errors in the assessment of smoking, and, if it had been possible to adjust for them, we would expect this to increase further the estimated effect of radon as there is negative confounding between smoking and radon.

Radon concentrations within a home vary from room to room and so the club radon concentration relevant to an individual will also vary, depending on the amount of time spent in different Effects of lsd drug.

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This is an additional source of random uncertainty and, if it could be taken intothe estimated swinger of radon could increase still further. Our study was based on measurements of radon gas made in the recent past. Any systematic increase in radon Horny mom Frosterley Portugal looking for sex over recent decades club, say, to increased energy efficiency would be a further source of dilution in our present risk estimates.

Techniques to estimate historical radon concentrations through measurements of Radonin radioactive damage to the surfaces of glass objects that have been in the home for many years are being developed and may help to over-come this, but the uncertainties and biases associated with these techniques, especially in the presence of environmental tobacco smoke, are not fully understood.

Our are also consistent with the pooled of two Chinese studies 22 and with a meta-analysis of the published of 17 studies, which, however, found marked heterogeneity between the different publications.

Attributable risk of lung cancer deaths due to indoor radon exposure

Exposure to the natural radioactive gas radon and its disintegration products can cause lung cancer. Exposure to radon gas in the home s for about half of all non-medical exposure to ionising radiation. High Cat pee smell drugs concentrations can be reduced in existing houses at moderate cost, and low concentrations can usually be ensured in new buildings at reasonable or low cost.

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After detailed stratification for smoking, there was strong evidence of an association between the radon concentration at home and lung cancer. The dose-response relation seemed to be linear, with no evidence of a threshold dose, and there was a ificant dose-response relation even below currently recommended action levels. The Rottweiler puppies reno nv risk to smokers and recent ex-smokers was much greater than to lifelong non-smokers.

An analysis of miners exposed to concentrations below 0.

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If the proportionate increases in risk per unit exposure are approximately independent of smoking history then, as lung cancer is much commoner in cigarette smokers than in Horny bitches in Washington Terrace non-smokers, radon poses a much greater absolute hazard to cigarette smokers, and to recent ex-smokers, than to lifelong swingers.

In most countries residential radon concentrations vary widely, with levels in most homes well below the national average but levels in a minority of homes several times higher than the national average. High radon concentrations can be reduced in existing houses at moderate cost, and low concentrations can usually be achieved at reasonable or low cost when new buildings are constructed.

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olav Axelsonwho published the first study on radon in homes and lung cancer in the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health in We thank the staff and participants in the collaborating studies.

Richard Peto and Jon Miles provided helpful discussions during preparation of this paper, Gary Whitlock commented on a draft version, and Tom Fearn and David Cox provided helpful comments on the statistical Male strip clubs ohio. Contributors: All authors were responsible for the de of this collaboration.

CM coordinated the European Commission grant. The funding sources had no role in study de, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, the writing of the report, or the decision to Radonin the club for publication. Ethical approval: Appropriate ethical committee approval was obtained for each study.

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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List BMJ v. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Good free sex to: S Darby ku. Accepted Nov 2.

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See commentary " Radon blues " in volume on